There are two distinct combat phases in Renatio et Gloriam.
The charge phase and the fighting phase.
Each of which has a different set of advantages or claims. Combat is determined using the traffic light of dice as we’ve seen in other mechanisms. Combat is fought on a file-by-file basis.
The active player will select the first file in a combat then alternate until the combat is complete. It is important to fight by file for those troops that may have characteristics that will benefit adjacent files. For instance, hard charging Lancers have a characteristic called Shatter. If these troops score a SKULL or an ‘S’ during a combat phase, then not only do they inflict wounds as per normal they Shatter their opponent which gives them a subsequent claim advantage on the adjacent files to that file. This represents the point of the charge breaking into the formation and troops that follow benefitting from the momentum. Similarly, there are characteristics in the fighting phase for instance infantry may have shock when tugs with shock scored S or a skull then they will get A claim advantage on adjacent files. Where neither side has troops advantages like this it becomes a little easier as dice can be thrown for the whole combat. Where TUGs have an advantage of numbers and have extra bases in adjacent files, then these two can participate in the combat as a supporting file this allows those troops with the extra file to throw an additional dice in the combat.
As the first and second wound is inflicted a wound counter is placed behind that TUG (the wound is not on the file, it is on the TUG). When a third wound is inflicted, a base is removed. As such each base has 3 ‘hits’. The base that is removed can be from any rank that the formation permits. Sometimes troops have characteristics that have better quality troops at the front of a formation – in which case when they do take a casualty the front-rank base must be removed first, then lower quality troops filling in from behind.
General claims are a set of claims that affect all troops so that may be quality or armour advantageous position for instance or pill or disadvantaged by being in bad terrain.
Preferred claims are specific by formation or weapon system and will generally only apply when fighting in good going. The claims for the charge phase are different from those in the fighting phase.
For example charging lancers have a positive claim in the charge, once their Lance is expended in the fighting phase, they may have a secondary weapon which may be pistol or a sword
Most combats will last over several terms and the separation of charge and fighting allows some troops to mirror their historical counterparts for instance charging Lancer will be able to break off from combat and then recharge this getting their benefit again.